The increasing pressure on the global water supply calls for more advanced solutions with higher efficiency and better sustainability, leading to the promptly developing water reclamation and reuse schemes including treatment technologies and risk management strategies where microbial safety is becoming a crucial aspect in the interest of public health. Backed up by the development of membrane technology, membrane bioreactors (MBR) have received substantial attention for their superiority over conventional treatment methods in many ways and are considered promising in the water reclamation realm. This review paper provides an overview of the efforts made to manage and control the potential waterborne viral disease risks raised by the use of effluent from MBR treatment processes, including the mechanisms involved in the virus removal process and the attempts to model the dynamics of the removal process. In principle, generalized and integrated virus removal models that provide insight into real-time monitoring are urgently needed for advanced real-time control purpose. Future studies of approaches that can well handle the inherent uncertainty and nonlinearity of the complex removal process are crucial to the development and promotion of related technologies.
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