Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrafast and standard dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI in evaluating the residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer. Materials and methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients underwent MRI after NAC. Visual analysis of enhancement was performed on ultrafast and standard DCE-MRI, and compared between no residual disease and residual disease groups. The lesion diameters measured on the last phase of ultrafast DCE-MRI and early and delayed phases of standard DCE-MRI were compared with pathological diameter of entire residual cancer and residual invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Results: The visual analysis in the delayed phase of standard DCE-MRI exhibited the highest sensitivity (90%), whereas ultrafast DCE-MRI revealed the highest positive predictive value (92%). There were no significant differences between the diameters in the delayed phase of the standard DCE-MRI and the pathological entire residual cancer (p = 0.97), and the diameters in ultrafast DCE-MRI and the pathological residual IDC (p = 0.97). Conclusion: The delayed phase of standard DCE-MRI may be effective for detecting the residual disease and evaluating the extension of entire residual cancer. Enhancement in ultrafast DCE-MRI may be strongly suggestive of the presence of residual disease, and effective for evaluating the extension of residual IDC.
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