Considerable progress in silicon pressure sensors has been made in recent years. This paper discusses three types of vacuumsealed silicon inicromachined pressure sensors that represent the present state of the art in this important area. The devices are a capacitive vacuum sensor, a surface-micromachined microdiaphragm pressure sensor, and a resonant pressure sensor. Vacuum sealing for these devices is accomplished using anodic bonding, films deposited using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, and thermal otit-diffusion of hydrogen, respectively. These sensors emphasize high sensitivity, small size, and excellent stability, respectively. The silicon-diaphragm vacuum sensor uses electrostatic force balancing to achieve a wide pressure measurement range.
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