Nitrogen and carbon dynamics in paddy and upland soils for rice cultivation and in upland soil for corn cultivation was investigated by using 13C and 15N dual-labeled cattle manure compost (CMC). In a soil with low fertility, paddy and upland rice took up carbon and nitrogen from the CMC at rates ranging from 0.685 to 1.051% of C and 17.6–34.6% of N applied. The 13C concentration was much higher in the roots than in the plant top, whereas the 15N concentration differed slightly between them, indicating that organic carbon taken up preferentially accumulated in roots. The 13C recovery in the plant top tended to be higher in upland soil than in paddy soil, whereas 15N applied was recovered at the same level in both paddy and upland soils. In the experiment with organic farming soil, paddy rice took up C and N from the CMC along with plant growth and the final recovery rates of 13C and 15N were 2.16 and 17.2% of C and N applied. In the corn experiment, a very large amount of carbon from the CMC was absorbed, accounting for at least 7 times value for rice. The final uptake rates of 13C and 15N reached about 13 and 10% of C and N applied, respectively. Carbon emission from the CMC sharply increased by 2 weeks after transplanting and the nitrogen emission was very low. It is concluded that rice and corn can take up an appreciable level of carbon and nitrogen from the CMC through roots.
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