Overlap of multiple mental disorders in each psychiatric patient has been emphasized and the style of assessment and intervention in each patient has been gradually changed. A new practical structured model that can comprehensively explain and assess the major mental disorders integratedly has been desired. In this report, the relationships between each of the major mental disorders and each neuropsychiatric component like personality, reward system, or reinforcement learning have been comprehensively reviewed to construct a new integrated structured model for assessing the overlapped mental conditions in primary care psychiatry. This new structured model contains the following three loops: “input-output-feedback loop” (external/environmental loop), “reward-learning loop” (learning loop), and “mood-reward sensitivity loop” (mood loop), which are connected by the functions of prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. With this new concept, overlapped mental conditions in each psychiatric patient could be theoretically much simply and logically explained. In conclusion, with the proposed psychiatric structured model, we can simply explain and understand the overlapped mental disorders in each patient. Inventing and developing such basic psychiatric structured model would offer us new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to realize personalized medicine, especially in the field of primary care psychiatry.
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