We report on two patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation (BLTx) combined with cardiac surgery. Patient 1 was a female whose pulmonary hypertension resulted from a congenital atrial septal defect (ASD) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. She had a very small left ventricle (LV). We initiated venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) before induction of general anesthesia. She underwent ASD patch closure, pulmonary artery replacement, and BLTx under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). At the weaning from CPB, primary graft dysfunction and pulmonary edema induced by LV diastolic dysfunction was apparent. We gradually decreased the ECMO support and eventually weaned off the ECMO on the 4th postoperative day (POD) and the ventilator on the 29th POD. Patient 2 was a male with Eisenmenger syndrome, which resulted from ASD and ventricular septal defect (VSD). He had a normal LV. General anesthesia was induced smoothly without ECMO. He underwent ASD and VSD patch closure, pulmonary artery replacement, and BLTx under CPB. Weaning from CPB proceeded smoothly. These patients needed different management because of their different LV function. Especially, perioperative management of the BLTx patient with LV diastolic dysfunction was difficult. Assessment of perioperative cardiac function is very important in BLTx combined with cardiac surgery.
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