The tumor microenvironment is considered to play a pivotal role in various human malignancies. Neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine neoplasms are considered to have different tumor microenvironments. However, owing to differences in the systemic and/or local immune statuses, tumor microenvironments in different patients may be difficult to compare. Mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs), although rare, could be useful for exploring the effects of neuroendocrine differentiation on the tumor microenvironment, because both neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine components are present in the same tumor. Here, we examined 33 cases.
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