Thus far, there have been no large cohort studies on total body irradiation (TBI)-containing conditioning regimens without antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in adults with aplastic anemia (AA) undergoing umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation (UCBT). We retrospectively analyzed 115 adults with idiopathic AA undergoing UCBT using TBI-containing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens without ATG between 2000 and 2018 on behalf of the Adult Aplastic Anemia Working Group of the Japanese Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. We then compared transplantation outcomes between a fludarabine (Flu)- and melphalan (Mel)-based regimen (FM) and a Flu- and cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based regimen (FC). The median patient age at UCBT was 41 years. The median total nucleated cell and total CD34+ cell doses in a UCB unit at cryopreservation were 2.5 × 107/kg and 0.7 × 105/kg, respectively. The median follow-up period for survivors was 47 months. The cumulative incidence rate of neutrophil engraftment was 76.5%, and the 4-year overall survival (OS) rate was 64.3%. In multivariate analysis, the covariates that were significantly associated with a higher neutrophil engraftment were total CD34+ cell dose in an UCB unit (≥ 0.7 × 105/kg; hazard ratio, 0.57, P = 0.01) and total dose of TBI (4 Gy of TBI; hazard ratio, 0.32, P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment and the 4-year OS between the FM and FC groups. In conclusion, TBI-containing RIC regimens without ATG are suitable for adults with AA undergoing UCBT. There were no significant differences in transplantation outcomes between the FM and FC groups.
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