Relationship between structural variants of enzymes and metabolic phenotypes in human population was investigated based on the association study of metabolite quantitative traits with whole genome sequence data for 512 individuals from a population cohort. We identified five significant associations between metabolites and non-synonymous variants. Four of these non-synonymous variants are located in enzymes involved in metabolic disorders, and structural analyses of these moderate non-synonymous variants demonstrate that they are located in peripheral regions of the catalytic sites or related regulatory domains. In contrast, two individuals with larger changes of metabolite levels were also identified, and these individuals retained rare variants, which caused non-synonymous variants located near the catalytic site. These results are the first demonstrations that variant frequency, structural location, and effect for phenotype correlate with each other in human population, and imply that metabolic individuality and susceptibility for diseases may be elicited from the moderate variants and much more deleterious but rare variants.
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