Background/Aims: The treatment strategy for non-ampullary duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NAD-NETs) ≤20 mm in diameter has not been established. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the detailed characteristics of NAD-NETs ≤20 mm in diameter to clarify the risk factors of subsequent metastasis. Methods: The patients with NAD-NETs ≤20 mm in diameter who had been treated at 12 institutions between 1992 and 2013 were enrolled. Clinical records were retrieved, and histopathological findings of all cases were centrally reviewed by 2 pathologists. Results: We studied 49 patients with a mean follow-up period of 66.5 months. Thirty-five patients were initially treated with endoscopic resection (ER), and 14 with surgery. A univariate analysis revealed the ORs and 95% CIs of the risk factors for metastasis were lymphovascular invasion (12.5 [2.01-77.9]), multiple tumors (9.75 [1.46-65.4]), a tumor size of 11-20 mm (6.67 [1.21-36.6]), and World Health Organization grade G2 (7.13 [1.16-43.9]). Five-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 86.1 and 97.2%, respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate the risk factors of metastasis in NAD-NETs ≤20 mm in diameter. These findings may be helpful for determining the appropriate therapeutic approach and the clinical strategy of treatment following ER.
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