One of the causes of genome size expansion is considered to be amplification of retrotransposons. We determined nucleotide sequences of 24 PCR products for each of six retrotransposons in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. Phylogenetic trees of these sequences showed species-specific clades. We also sequenced STF7a homologs and Tto1 homologs, 24 PCR products each, in nine diploids and three allopolyploids, and constructed phylogenetic trees. In these phylogenetic trees, species-specific clades of diploid species were also formed, but retrotransposons of allopolyploids were clustered into the clades of their original genomes, indicating that these two retrotransposons amplified after speciation of the nine diploids. Genetic variation in these retrotransposons may have arisen before emergence of allopolyploid species. There was a positive correlation between the genome size and the average number of substitutions of STF7a and Tto1 homologs in at least seven diploids. The implications of these results in the genome evolution of Brassicaceae are herein discussed.
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