The transcription factor Bach2 regulates both acquired and innate immunity at multiple steps, including antibody class switching and regulatory T cell development in activated B and T cells, respectively. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Bach2 regulation in response to signaling of cytokines and antigen. We show here that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls Bach2 along B cell differentiation with two distinct mechanisms in pre-B cells. First, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibited accumulation of Bach2 protein in nuclei and reduced its stability. Second, mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) inhibited FoxO1 to reduce Bach2 mRNA expression. Using expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, the Ccnd3 gene, encoding cyclin D3, was identified as a new direct target of Bach2. A proper cell cycle was lost at pre-B and mature B cell stages in Bach2-deficient mice. Furthermore, AZD8055, an mTOR inhibitor, increased class switch recombination in wild-type mature B cells but not in Bach2-deficient cells. These results suggest that the mTOR-Bach2 cascade regulates proper cell cycle arrest in B cells as well as immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.
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