The optimal treatment for high-risk prostate cancer (Pca) remains to be established. The current guidelines recommend extended pelvic lymph node dissection (e-PLND) for selected intermediate- and high-risk patients treated with RP. However, the indications, optimal extent, and therapeutic benefits of e-PLND remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether e-PLND confers an oncological benefit for high-risk Pca compared to neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and estramustine (LHRH + EMP). The Michinoku Urological Cancer Study Group database contained the data of 2403 consecutive Pca patients treated with RP at four institutes between March 2000 and December 2014. In the e-PLND group, we identified 238 high-risk Pca patients who underwent RP and e-PLND, with lymphatic tissue removal around the obturator and the external iliac regions, and hypogastric lymph node dissection. The neoadjuvant therapy with limited PLND (l-PLND) group included 280 high-risk Pca patients who underwent RP and removal of the obturator node chain between September 2005 and June 2014 at Hirosaki University. The outcome measure was BRFS. The 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rates for the neoadjuvant therapy with l-PLND group and e-PLND group were 84.9 and 54.7%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The operative time was significantly longer in the e-PLND group compared to that of the neoadjuvant therapy with l-PLND group. Grade 3/4 surgery-related complications were not identified in both groups. Although the present study was not randomized, neoadjuvant LHRH + EMP therapy followed by RP might reduce the risk of biochemical recurrence.
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