Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rarely develops in children with an atrial septal defect (ASD), even those with a large defect. We herein report the case of a 27-year-old man with a moderate-sized secundum ASD and right ventricular failure due to severe PAH, which developed in his early teens. He was diagnosed as having a genetic mutation of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 (BMPR2) gene and was successfully treated with bilateral lung transplantation with ASD path closure. In patients with congenital heart disease, a genetic analysis may provide information about the lifetime risk of developing PAH.
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