The autopod: Its formation during limb development

Koji Tamura, Sayuri Yonei-Tamura, Tohru Yano, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Ide

研究成果: Review article

29 引用 (Scopus)


The autopod, including the mesopodium and the acropodium, is the most distal part of the tetrapod limb, and developmental mechanisms of autopod formation serve as a model system of pattern formation during development. Cartilage rudiments of the autopod develop after proximal elements have differentiated. The autopod region is marked by a change in the expression of two homeobox genes: future autopod cells are first Hoxa11/Hoxa13-double-positive and then Hoxa13-single-positive. The change in expression of these Hox genes is controlled by upstream mechanisms, including the retinoic acid pathway, and the expression of Hoxa13 is connected to downstream mechanisms, including the autopod-specific cell surface property mediated by molecules, including cadherins and ephrins/Ephs, for cell-to-cell communication and recognition. Comparative analyses of the expression of Hox genes in fish fins and tetrapod limb buds support the notion on the origin of the autopod in vertebrates. This review will focus on the cellular and molecular regulation of the formation of the autopod during development and evolutionary developmental aspects of the origin of the autopod.

ジャーナルDevelopment Growth and Differentiation
発行部数SUPPL. 1
出版物ステータスPublished - 2008 6 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

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