The National Clinical Database (NCD) of Japan started its registration in 2011 and over 9 000 000 cases from more than 5000 facilities were registered over a 6-year period. This is the report of NCD based upon gastrointestinal surgery information in excess of 3 200 000 cases from 2011 to 2016 adding data of complications. About 70% of all gastrointestinal surgeries were carried out at certified institutions, and the percentage of surgeries done at certified institutions was particularly high for the esophagus (92.4% in 2016), liver (88.4%), pancreas (89.8%), and spleen (86.8%). The percentage of anesthesiologist participation was more than 90% for almost all organs, except 85.7% for the rectum and anus. Approximately, more than two-thirds of the surgeries were carried out with the participation of a board-certified surgeon. Although patients have been getting older, mortalities have not been increasing. There were differences in the incidence of complications according to organ site and procedure. Remarkably, mortality rates of low anterior resection were very low, and those of hepatectomy and acute diffuse peritonitis surgery have been gradually decreasing. Although the complication rates were gradually increasing for esophagectomy or pancreaticoduodenectomy, the mortality rates for these procedures were decreasing. Nationwide, this database is expected to ensure the quality of the board-certification system and surgical outcomes in gastroenterological surgery.
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