Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish symbiotic relationships with most land plants, mainly for the purpose of nutrient exchange. Many studies have revealed the regulation of processes in AMF, such as nutrient absorption from soil, metabolism and exchange with host plants, and the genes involved. However, the spatial regulation of the genes within the structures comprising each developmental stage is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate the structure-specific transcriptome of the model AMF species, Rhizophagus irregularis. We performed an ultra-low input RNA-seq analysis, SMART-seq2, comparing five extraradical structures, germ tubes, runner hyphae, branched absorbing structures (BAS), immature spores and mature spores. In addition, we reanalyzed the recently reported RNA-seq data comparing intraradical mycelium and arbuscule. Our analyses captured the distinct features of each structure and revealed the structure-specific expression patterns of genes related to nutrient transport and metabolism. Of note, the transcriptional profiles suggest distinct functions of BAS in nutrient absorption. These findings provide a comprehensive dataset to advance our understanding of the transcriptional dynamics of fungal nutrition in this symbiotic system.
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