π-A isotherms, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy are employed to investigate the molecular structure and lateral interactions in mixed monolayers of dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DOAC) and stearyl alcohol (SA) at air/water and air/solid interfaces. To avoid possible interference between the two molecules in the SFG spectroscopic measurements, perprotonated DOAC and perdeuterated SA (dSA) were used. The thermodynamic analyses for the π-A isotherms show that DOAC is miscible with dSA. SFG observations reveal that DOAC molecules become conformationally ordered as dSA molecules are introduced into the monolayer. AFM observations demonstrate coexistence of DOAC-rich and dSA-rich domains in the mixed monolayer with ratios different from their initial composition in the subphase. The present study suggests that DOAC molecules in the mixed monolayer are condensed by mixing with dSA in which the repulsive interactions between positively charged head groups of the DOAC molecules are largely reduced along with an increase of van der Waals interactions with dSA.
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