The atomic scale structure of solutions has been recognized as one of the most important research subjects in both aqueous solution chemistry and hydiometallurgy. For this purpose, knowledge of the environmental structure around a certain metallic cation in solution is strongly required. The anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) method, particularty, the energy derivative AXS method, enables us to reduce difficulties due to corrections for scattering from a solution cell as well as for large contribution from water molecules. An attempt is made in this paper to review current studies of hydration structures in concentrated chloride solutions, local structures of ferric hydroxide gel, and atomic structures of poly-molybdate ions in acid Mo-Ni aqueous solutions.
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