Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ -ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) is a ubiquitously expressed membrane protein that facilitates Ca 2+ uptake from the cytosol to the ER. SERCA2b includes a characteristic 11 th transmembrane helix (TM11) followed by a luminal tail, but the structural basis of SERCA regulation by these C-terminal segments remains unclear. Here, we determined the crystal structures of SERCA2b and its C-terminal splicing variant SERCA2a, both in the E1-2Ca 2+ -adenylyl methylenediphosphonate (AMPPCP) state. Despite discrepancies with the previously reported structural model of SERCA2b, TM11 was found to be located adjacent to TM10 and to interact weakly with a part of the L8/9 loop and the N-terminal end of TM10, thereby inhibiting the SERCA2b catalytic cycle. Accordingly, mutational disruption of the interactions between TM11 and its neighboring residues caused SERCA2b to display SERCA2a-like ATPase activity. We propose that TM11 serves as a key modulator of SERCA2b activity by fine-tuning the intramolecular interactions with other transmembrane regions.
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