The chemokine receptor CCR5 is an attractive target for HIV-1 drug development, as individuals whose cells lack surface CCR5 expression are highly resistant to HIV-1 infection. CCR5 ligands, such as CCL5/RANTES, effectively inhibit HIV-1 infection by competing for binding opportunities to the CCR5 and inducing its internalization. However, the inherent proinflammatory activity of the chemotactic response of CCR5 ligands has limited their clinical use. In this study, we found that a novel small molecule, functionally selective CCR5 agonist, 2,2-dichloro-1-(triphenylphosphonio)vinyl formamide perchlorate (YM-370749), down-modulates CCR5 from the cell surface without inducing a chemotactic response and inhibits HIV-1 replication. In molecular docking studies of YM-370749 and a three-dimensional model of CCR5 based on the rhodopsin crystal structure as well as binding and functional studies using various CCR5 mutants, the amino acid residues necessary for interaction with YM-370749 were marked. These results provide a structural basis for understanding the activation mechanism of CCR5 and for designing functionally selective agonists as a novel class of anti-HIV-1 agents.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy