Objectives: Ex vivo lung perfusion provides an innovative method to assess and repair donor lungs. The current Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion protocol can reliably and reproducibly preserve lungs for 12 hours. A longer ex vivo lung perfusion preservation time could enable the application of more advanced repair therapies and the rescue of more donor lungs for lung transplant. Our objective was to achieve stable 24-hour normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion. Methods: We systematically examined 3 modifications of ex vivo lung perfusion perfusate administration in a large animal 24-hour ex vivo lung perfusion model. Pig lungs were assigned to 4 groups (n = 5 per group): (1) control; (2) continuous replacement of ex vivo lung perfusion perfusate; (3) modified feed, which used a modified solution to maintain perfusate osmolality by adjusting glucose and sodium levels; and (4) total parenteral nutrition, in which we added parenteral nutrition to the perfusate. Results: Only 1 lung in the control group completed 24-hour ex vivo lung perfusion. However, 24-hour perfusion was achieved in 4 lungs in the continuous replacement group, 3 lungs in the modified feed group, and 4 lungs in the total parenteral nutrition group. The total parenteral nutrition group achieved significantly longer stable perfusion time compared with control (P =.03). Lung function was significantly improved and inflammatory cytokine production was reduced in the continuous replacement and total parenteral nutrition groups compared with control. Conclusions: Modifications of ex vivo lung perfusion perfusate toward achieving a stable homeostatic state can extend perfusion time for up to 24 hours. Although these modifications allow for prolonged ex vivo lung perfusion, further research will be required to develop stable lung support beyond 24 hours.
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