A sputtering process using multi-stacking of carbon and metal thin films with subsequent annealing process to reactively form metal carbides (TiC, TaC, and W2C) has been presented. Grain sizes of the carbides are as small as 3.9, 3.2, and 1.9 nm for TiC, TaC, and W2C, respectively. Work functions of TiC, TaC, and W2C layers have been extracted as 4.3, 4.7, and 4.9 eV, respectively, relatively high values due to oriented growth. W2C layer formed by the presented process gives high potential to form carbides with nano-sized grain and high work function for gate electrode application.
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