Our previous study showed that synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP) enhanced bone regeneration more than hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). Recently, we have engineered a composite of synthetic OCP and collagen (OCP/Collagen), which improved the handling performance and synergistically enhanced bone regeneration up to eight weeks after implantation. The present study investigated whether the regenerated bone by OCP/Collagen could be stable for long period. OCP/Collagen sponge was prepared from pepsin-digested atelocollagen isolated from the porcine dermis and OCP granules. A standardized critical-sized defect was made in the rat calvarium, and an OCP/Collagen was implanted into the defect. Five rats were fixed at twenty-four weeks after implantation and examined radiographically and histologically. Radiographic examination showed that radiopaque figure was occupied throughout the defect, whereas OCP/Collagen itself was no radiopacity before implantation. Histological examination showed that newly formed bone was observed throughout the defect in OCP/Collagen. The implanted OCP/Collagen tended to be resorbed and was replaced by newly formed bone. The regenerated bone was stable and matured. The present study indicated that bone regeneration by the implantation of OCP/Collagen was stable for long-term periods. Application of OCP/Collagen without both cell transplantation and exogenous osteogenic cytokines would result in cost-effective bone regenerative therapy in the future.
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