In quantum many-body systems, the equation of motion for a simple fermionic operator does not close, and higher-order processes induce composite operators dressed with several types of nonlocal quantum fluctuation. We systematically examine the spectral properties of these composite excitations in the t–J model in one spatial dimension by both numerical and theoretical approaches. Of particular interest, with the help of the Bethe ansatz for the large-U Hubbard model, is the classification of which composite excitations are due to the string excitation, which is usually hidden in the single-particle spectrum, as well as the spinon and holon branches. We examine how the mixing between the spinon and string excitations is prohibited in terms of the composite operator method. Owing to the dimensionality independent nature of the present approach, we discuss the implications of the mixing in close connection with the pseudogap in high-Tc cuprates.
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