Alzheimer’s disease (AD), characterized by cognitive impairments, is considered to be one of the most widespread chronic neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. We recently introduced a novel therapeutic agent for AD treatment, the T-type calcium channel enhancer ethyl-8-methyl-2,4dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin]-2-ene-3-carboxylate (SAK3). SAK3 enhances calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and proteasome activity, thereby promoting amyloid beta degradation in mice with AD. However, the antioxidative effects of SAK3 remain unclear. We investigated the antioxidative effects of SAK3 in olfactory bulbectomized mice (OBX mice), compared with the effects of donepezil as a positive control. As previously reported, single oral administration of both SAK3 (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) and donepezil (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly improved cognitive and depressive behaviors in OBX mice. Single oral SAK3 administration markedly reduced 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and nitrotyrosine protein levels in the hippocampus of OBX mice, which persisted until 1 week after administration. These effects are similar to those observed with donepezil therapy. Increased protein levels of oxidative stress markers were observed in the microglial cells, which were significantly rescued by SAK3 and donepezil. SAK3 could ameliorate oxidative stress in OBX mice, like donepezil, suggesting that the antioxidative effects of SAK3 and donepezil are among the neuroprotective mechanisms in AD pathogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry