Tight control management of Crohn’s disease (CD) based on biomarkers is more effective than conventional clinical management; however, fecal calprotectin is not allowed in Asian and some Western countries. To investigate whether tight control management based on readily available serum biomarkers results in better outcomes, we retrospectively reviewed treatment courses of consecutive Japanese CD patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents between 2003 and 2018. The association between failure of tight control (C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or albumin (Alb) < 3.8 g/dL at week 8 or 24) and subsequent major adverse outcomes (MAOs; hospitalization related to CD worsening, surgery, and discontinuation due to treatment failure) were analyzed. Among 223 patients followed for >8 weeks, 88 patients experienced MAOs. Multivariate analysis identified penetrating type, CRP ≥ 0.5 mg/dL and Alb < 3.8 g/dL at week 8 as independent risk factors (hazard ratios: 2.16, 2.06, and 2.08, respectively). Among 204 patients followed for >24 weeks, 80 patients experienced MAOs. Penetrating type, CRP ≥ 0.5 mg/dL, and Alb < 3.8 g/dL at week 24 were identified as independent risk factors (2.39, 1.90, and 2.20, respectively). Even in settings without fecal calprotectin, tight control management based on serum CRP and Alb may help avoid MAOs.
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