Selenoprotein P (SeP) is one of the 25 human selenocysteine (Sec)-containing proteins, and is generally thought to function as a plasma carrier of the trace element selenium in the body. Recent studies, however, indicate unsuspected pivotal roles of SeP in human diseases, particularly in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this review, we will summarize the characteristics of SeP and recent advances in the field, especially focusing on the emerging roles of SeP in pathophysiological conditions. We will also discuss potential medical/pharmaceutical applications targeting SeP.
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