Scaling of swim speed and stroke frequency in geometrically similar penguins: They swim optimally to minimize cost of transport

Katsufumi Sato, Kozue Shiomi, Yuuki Watanabe, Yutaka Watanuki, Akinori Takahashi, Paul J. Ponganis

研究成果: Article査読

40 被引用数 (Scopus)

抄録

It has been predicted that geometrically similar animals would swim at the same speed with stroke frequency scaling with mass-1/3. In the present study, morphological and behavioural data obtained from free-ranging penguins (seven species) were compared. Morphological measurements support the geometrical similarity. However, cruising speeds of 1.8-2.3m s-1 were significantly related to mass0.08 and stroke frequencies were proportional to mass-0.29. These scaling relationships do not agree with the previous predictions for geometrically similar animals. We propose a theoretical model, considering metabolic cost, work against mechanical forces (drag and buoyancy), pitch angle and dive depth. This new model predicts that: (i) the optimal swim speed, which minimizes the energy cost of transport, is proportional to (basal metabolic rate/drag)1/3 independent of buoyancy, pitch angle and dive depth; (ii) the optimal speed is related to mass0.05; and (iii) stroke frequency is proportional to mass -0.28. The observed scaling relationships of penguins support these predictions, which suggest that breath-hold divers swam optimally to minimize the cost of transport, including mechanical and metabolic energy during dive.

本文言語English
ページ(範囲)707-714
ページ数8
ジャーナルProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
277
1682
DOI
出版ステータスPublished - 2010 3月 7
外部発表はい

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 生化学、遺伝学、分子生物学(全般)
  • 免疫学および微生物学(全般)
  • 環境科学(全般)
  • 農業および生物科学(全般)

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