Rosacea is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease most frequently seen in groups of genetically related individuals. Although the symptoms of rosacea are heterogeneous, they are all related by the presence of characteristic facial or ocular inflammation involving both the vascular and tissue stroma. Until recently, the pathophysiology of this disease was limited to descriptions of a wide variety of factors that exacerbate or improve disease. Lesional skins of rosacea increase the susceptibility to environmental stimuli through TLR2 and consequently have aberrant cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides along with the increase of kallikrein 5, the cathelicidin-processing enzyme in epidermis. The molecular studies show a common link between the triggers of rosacea and the cellular response, and these observations suggest that an altered innate immune response is involved in disease pathogenesis. Understanding rosacea as a disorder of innate immunity explains the benefits of current treatments and suggests new therapeutic strategies for alleviating this disease.
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