Synaptotagmin I (or II), a possible Ca2+-sensor of synaptic vesicles, has two functionally distinct C2 domains: the C2A domain binds Ca2+and the C2B domain binds inositol high polyphosphates (IP4, IP5, and IP6). Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of secretory vesicles is proposed to be activated by Ca2+ binding to the C2A domain and inhibited by inositol polyphosphate binding to the C2B domain. Synaptotagmins now constitute a large family and are thought to be involved in both regulated and constitutive vesicular trafficking. They are classified from their distribution as neuronal (synaptotagmin I-V, X, and XI) and the ubiquitous type (synaptotagmin VI-IX). Among them, synaptotagmins III, V, VI and X are deficient in IP4 binding activity due to the amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal region of the C2B domain, suggesting that these isoforms can work for vesicular trafficking even in the presence of inositol high polyphosphates. Synaptotagmin I is also known to be present in neuronal growth cone vesicles. Antibody against the C2A domain (anti-C2A) that inhibits Ca2+-regulated exocytosis also blocked neurite outgrowth of the chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron, suggesting that Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin activation is also crucial for neurite outgrowth. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
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