Invasive fungal infection is a fatal complication in liver transplantation and it is very difficult to diagnose at the early stage. The aim of this study was to review our experience with invasive fungal infections in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to analyze the risk factors and the impact of β-D glucan. From 1991 to 2005, 96 LDLTs were performed in our institution and we measured the serum level of β-D glucan in order to clarify the diagnosis. Invasive fungal infection was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, culture, radiological evidence and β-D glucan. Active fungal infection was treated with fluconazole, amphotericin B, flucytosine and micafungin. Risk factors both pre- and post- LDLT were analyzed. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (70%). The risk factors identified by univariate analysis include the following four conditions: acute blood purification (plasma exchange with or without continuous hemodiafiltration), hepatic vein complications, renal failure and respiratory failure. By logistic regression analysis, hepatic vein complications and respiratory failure were identified as independent risk factors. The risk factors for invasive fungal infection of LDLT in Japan have not been well analyzed and this report will provide valuable information for the prevention of the fungal infection.
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