Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) has been known as a potentially malignant tumor which occasionally recur and/or metastasize to other organs, and clinically and pathologically recognized as distinct entity. However, the mechanisms of recurrence and/or metastasis (recurrence/metastasis) has still remained unknown. Here, we report two cases of renal EAML associated with recurrence/metastasis, and three cases of EAML in kidney or liver without recurrence/metastasis. According to the previous histological predictive models of EAML, the primary tumor was classified as low risk group in one of the cases with recurrence/metastasis in spite of its malignant behavior. Therefore, we considered that further investigation about the mechanisms of recurrence/metastasis in EAML is required for a malignancy prediction. We focused on some cell-cycle modulators, including mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), which is ubiquitin ligase well-known to promote malignant behaviors by p53 ubiquitination and degradation, and also other cellular processes including genomic instability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in p53-independent manners in various human malignancies. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that MDM2 protein expression increased stepwise throughout every steps of metastasis/recurrence in both cases, although it was negative in primary tumors. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that MDM2 could play an important role in the molecular mechanisms of recurrence/metastasis of EAML. Further analyses focusing on MDM2 pathway could contribute to the identification of novel prognostic factors and/or therapeutic targets in EAML patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas