Purpose: A new method has been developed for evaluating arterial stiffness using transcutaneous and high-frequency ultrasound. There may be a difference in the clinical significance of peripheral arteries, such as the radial artery (a muscular property), and other medium/large-sized arteries (an elastic property). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between upper limb peripheral arterial stiffness (ULPAS) using the new method for the radial artery and atherosclerotic parameters in comparison with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in a healthy population and a diseased population with hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Forty-four apparently healthy individuals (mean age = 26.3 years, men/women = 14/30), 45 patients with drug-treated HT (mean age = 55.3 years, men/women = 17/28), and 37 patients with drug-treated DM (mean age = 55.2 years, men/women = 21/16) were investigated. Body mass index, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), CAVI, IMT, ultrasonographically measured ULPAS, blood lipid/glucose-related parameters, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were all determined. Results: Among the healthy subjects, ULPAS showed a significantly positive correlation with SBP and CRP. ULPAS showed a different correlation pattern with atherosclerotic parameters from that of IMT and CAVI. The HT subjects had significantly higher ULPAS levels than those with DM. In this diseased population, ULPAS showed a significant positive correlation with SBP and DBP, as well as a significant negative correlation with glucose. Conclusion: These results suggest that ULPAS may provide new information in association with some atherosclerotic conditions as a unique index different from IMT and CAVI.
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