To investigate the roles of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) in the regulation of 3-position phosphorylated phosphoinositide metabolism as well as insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and glucose metabolism, wild-type PTEN and its phosphatase-dead mutant (C124S) with or without an N-terminal myristoylation tag were overexpressed in Sf-9 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes using baculovirus and adenovirus systems, respectively. When expressed in Sf-9 cells together with the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, myristoylated PTEN markedly reduced the accumulations of both phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate induced by p110α. In contrast, overexpression of the C124S mutants apparently increased these accumulations. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-induced accumulations of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate were markedly suppressed by overexpression of wild-type PTEN with the N-terminal myristoylation tag, but not by that without the tag. On the contrary, the C124S mutants of PTEN enhanced insulin-induced accumulations of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Interestingly, the phosphorylation level of Akt at Thr308 (Akt2 at Thr309), but not at Ser473 (Akt2 at Ser474), was revealed to correlate well with the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate modified by overexpression of these PTEN proteins. Finally, insulin-induced increases in glucose transport activity were significantly inhibited by the overexpression of myristoylated wild-type PTEN, but were not enhanced by expression of the C124S mutant of PTEN. Therefore, in conclusion, 1) PTEN dephosphorylates both phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in vivo, and the C124S mutants interrupt endogenous PTEN activity in a dominant-negative manner. 2) The membrane targeting process of PTEN may be important for exerting its function. 3) Phosphorylations of Thr309 and Ser474 of Akt2 are regulated differently, and the former is regulated very sensitively by the function of PTEN. 4) The phosphorylation level of Ser474, but not that of Thr309, in Akt2 correlates well with insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 5) The activity of endogenous PTEN may not play a major role in the regulation of glucose transport activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
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