The study analysed the modes of regeneration for Fagus crenata in a forest where both the understorey and the canopy gaps are dominated by dwarf bamboo. Compared with the period from 50 to 100 years ago, during the last 50 years fewer beeches grew taller than dwarf bamboo (2 m) and fewer beeches reached the forest canopy. At the same time the dominance of beech is decreasing in favour of dominance of dwarf bamboo at a lower level. It is suggested that the synchronous flowering and withering of dwarf bamboo favoured establishment of beech around 1820 and caused a wave of recruitment of beech in the forest canopy around 1920. After recovery of dominance in the understorey by dwarf bamboo, successful establishment of beech became sparse and more restricted to tip-up mounds and the periphery of gaps. Though root collar sprouts were found they are unimportant for regeneration of beech.
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