We report the experimental observation of rectified momentum transport for a Bose-Einstein condensate kicked at the Talbot time (quantum resonance) by an optical standing wave. Atoms are initially prepared in a superposition of the 0 and -2 kl momentum states using an optical π/2 pulse. By changing the relative phase of the superposed states, a momentum current in either direction along the standing wave may be produced. We offer an interpretation based on matter-wave interference, showing that the observed effect is uniquely quantum.
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