Mutations in the canoe locus of Drosophila lead to failure in the dorsal closure of the embryonic epidermis and pattern formation defects in imaginai eyes and wings. In the wing, the canoe mutants develop extra veins when they are heterozygous for shaggy, a mutation in the locus encoding the glycogen synthose kinase 3β; (Gsk3β), which has been known to phosphorylate the Armadillo protein. Although Canoe has a putative target sequence for phosphorylation by Gsk3β similar to that found in Armadillo, in vitro experiments indicate that Canoe is not phosphorylated by Gsk3β. Instead, Canoe is demonstrated to be a good substrate of Cdc2 and Cdk5 kinases. Thus, Cdc2 and Cdk5 kinases are the potential regulators of the function of Canoe in morphogenesis.
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