Background - We and others have reported that transient accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the myocardium during ischemic preconditioning (IP) limits infarct size independent of protein kinase C (PKC). Accumulation of cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which has been demonstrated to cause reversible inhibition of RhoA and Rho-kinase. We investigated the involvement of PKA and Rho-kinase in the infarct limitation by IP. Methods and Results - Dogs were subjected to 90-minute ischemia and 6-hour reperfusion. We examined the effect on Rho-kinase activity during sustained ischemia and infarct size of (1) preischemic transient coronary occlusion (IP), (2) preischemic activation of PKA/PKC, (3) inhibition of PKA/PKC during IP, and (4) inhibition of Rho-kinase or actin cytoskeletal deactivation during myocardial ischemia. Either IP or dibutyryl-cAMP treatment activated PKA, which was dose-dependently inhibited by 2 PKA inhibitors (H89 and Rp-cAMP). IP and preischemic PKA activation substantially reduced infarct size, which was blunted by preischemic PKA inhibition. IP and preischemic PKA activation, but not PKC activation, caused a substantial decrease of Rho-kinase activation during sustained ischemia. These changes were cancelled by preischemic inhibition of PKA but not PKC. Furthermore, either Rho-kinase inhibition (hydroxyfasudil or Y27632) or actin cytoskeletal deactivation (cytochalasin-D) during sustained ischemia achieved the same infarct limitation as preischemic PKA activation without affecting systemic hemodynamic parameters, the area at risk, or collateral blood flow. Conclusions - Transient preischemic activation of PKA reduces infarct size through Rho-kinase inhibition and actin cytoskeletal deactivation during sustained ischemia, implicating a novel mechanism for cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning independent of PKC and a potential new therapeutic target.
|出版ステータス||Published - 2004 7 6|
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