AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in metabolic regulation. In this study, first, it was revealed that Pin1 associates with any isoform of y, but not with either the α or the β subunit, of AMPK. The association between Pin1 and the AMPK y1 subunit is mediated by the WW domain of Pin1 and the Thr211-Pro-containing motif located in the CBS domain of the y1 subunit Importantly, overexpression of Pin1 suppressed AMPK phosphorylation in response to either 2-deoxyglucose or biguanide stimulation, whereas Pin1 knockdown by siRNAs or treatment with Pin1 inhibitors enhanced it. The experiments using recombinant Pin1, AMPK, LKB1, and PP2C proteins revealed that the protective effect of AMP against PP2C-induced AMPK α subunitdephosphorylation was markedly suppressed by the addition of Pin1. In good agreement with the in vitro data, the level of AMPK phosphorylation as well as the expressions of mitochondria-related genes, such as PGC-1α, which are known to be positively regulated by AMPK, were markedly higher with reduced triglyceride accumulation in the muscles of Pin1 KO mice as compared with controls. These findings suggest that Pin1 plays an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, functioning as a negative regulator of AMPK.
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