Background: Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is considered a potential approach to improve survival for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA). The objective of this study was to identify the clinical implications of washing peritoneal cytology (CY) status after NAT. Methods: Between 2005 and 2016, 151 consecutive patients with resectable (R)/borderline resectable (BR) PA underwent NAT with intention of subsequent resection at our institution. Of them, 13 and 123 patients underwent pancreatectomies with positive (CY+) and negative (CY-) cytology, respectively, while the remaining 15 patients did not undergo resection due to gross metastases at laparotomy. The clinicopathological factors influencing overall survival were clarified by the uni- and multivariate analyses. Results: The postoperative overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were markedly worse in patients who underwent resection with CY+, compared with those who were CY- (median OS, 14.8 m vs 30.8 m, p = 0.026, and median DFS 6.0 m vs 15.1 m, p = 0.008). According to the resectability by NCCN guidelines, CY+ indicates worse prognosis than CY- in R-PA patients (mOS: 30.1 m vs 71.1 m: p = 0.080). Similarly, in BR-PA patients, CY+ showed the significantly worse prognosis than CY- (mOS: 13.8 m vs 24.5 m: p = 0.048), which prognosis is comparable with patients who did not undergo resection. The multivariate analysis revealed that resectability, CY status and the induction of adjuvant therapy were significant predictors of postoperative OS (p = 0.007: Hazard ratio 2.264, 0.040:2.094 and 0.002:3.246, respectively). Conclusions: CY+ is a significant predictor of poorer prognosis in PA patients after NAT. The subsequent pancreatectomies with CY+ after NAT do not contribute to prolonged survival.
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