The purpose of the present study was to confirm if proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract (GSE) had the ability to improve bone health such as bone loss, bone healing, and implant osseointegration (defined as the direct connection between bone tissue and an implant) in ovariectomized (OVX) animals. We demonstrated that daily oral administration of GSE prevented bone loss in the lumbar vertebrae and femur in OVX mice. In addition, osteoclastogenesis in the lumbar spine bone of OVX mice, as assessed by histological and histomorphometric analyses, was accelerated but GSE prevented this dynamization, suggesting that GSE could counteract OVX-induced accelerated osteoclastogenic activity. In rats, OVX clearly impaired the healing of defects created on the calvaria, and GSE overcame this OVX-impaired healing. In the same way, osseointegration of a tibial implant in rats was retarded by OVX, and GSE counteracted the OVX-induced poor osseointegration, likely promoting bone healing by preventing imbalanced bone turnover. These results suggest that orally administered GSE improved implant osseointegration by mitigating the impaired bone health induced by OVX as a model of estrogen deficiency.
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