Background: We examined the prevalence of and risk factors for nocturia in Kurashiki city and the surrounding area, a rural area in Japan. Materials and Methods: We collected data on 6517 individuals (4568 men and 1949 women) who participated in a multiphasic health screening. We analyzed the relationships between nocturia assessed by a questionnaire (voiding twice or more during night) and other variables including age, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic renal failure, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), smoking habit and alcohol intake. Results: Overall, 1856 individuals (28.5%) answered that they arose to urinate at least twice during the night. This rate increased with age from 16.5% in individuals younger than 50 to 60.0% in those older than 69. Logistic regression analysis revealed that cohorts of subjects 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years old or over had, respectively, 1.75, 3.35, and 6.21 times the prevalence of nocturia of the 49 years or younger cohort. Hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 1.64) and DM (OR 1.70) were other independent positive risk factors for nocturia. On the other hand, current smokers who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day were less likely to have nocturia than non-smokers (OR 0.72). In male individuals, BPH was another independent positive risk factor (OR 1.35). Gender was not associated with nocturia. Conclusions: Although population bias is an important limitation to this study, nocturia is associated with various factors suggesting that multiple approaches are needed to the treatment of patients with nocturia.
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