Segmental selective adrenal venous sampling (sAVS) elucidates an intraadrenal aldosterone activity map (IAMap), which allows us to design a novel surgical treatment strategy for patients with primary aldosteronism. We evaluated the usefulness of sAVS by analyzing 278 patients with whom we had prospectively used IAMap using the criteria of sAVS for surgical indication between 2009 and 2015. We evaluated its diagnostic accuracy using pathological and postsurgical biochemical and clinical outcomes. One hundred twenty and 158 patients were diagnosed with unilateral and bilateral disease, respectively, through sAVS. The concordance of lateralization diagnosis with computed tomography imaging was 66.6%. Among the unilateral patients, we performed partial adrenalectomy in 68 patients whose IAMap showed focal aldosterone hypersecretion from computed tomography-detectable tumor in the affected adrenal gland. All of them achieved complete biochemical success 1 year after surgery. Furthermore, 25 of 158 bilateral disease patients underwent surgical resection because they were preoperatively diagnosed as bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas by IAMap. These cases showed complete or partial biochemical success (28.0% and 72.0%, respectively); 36.0% showed complete clinical success. Pathological studies demonstrated that all 145 resected specimens possessed aldosterone-producing adenoma or multiple nodules (132 and 13 cases, respectively), and none showed diffuse hyperplasia. IAMap accurately diagnosed both bilateral and unilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas and diffuse hyperplasia before surgery. sAVS allows a novel surgical strategy for selected PA patients with favorable outcomes.
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