Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX-HP) improves the survival of patients with septic shock. Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study conducted on patients treated during a 3-year period. We performed propensity-score analyses of the Japan Septic Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (JSEPTIC DIC) study database. The study included data on 1723 patients with septic shock aged 16 years or older. Furthermore, we divided patients into to PMX-HP- and non-PMX-HP-treated groups. The primary endpoint was all-cause hospital mortality; secondary endpoints included intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and number of ICU-free days (ICUFDs) in the first 28 days. Results: Of 1,723 eligible patients, 522 had received PMX-HP. Propensity score matching created 262 matched pairs (i.e., 262 patients in each of the non-PMX-HP and PMX-HP groups). The proportion of all-cause hospital mortality was significantly lower in the PMX-HP group than in the non-PMX-HP group (32.8% vs. 41.2%; odds ratio (OR): 0.681; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.470-0.987; P = 0.042). The number of ICUFD in the first 28 days was significantly higher in the PMX-HP group than in the non-PMX-HP group (18 (0-22) vs. 14 (0-22) days, respectively; P = 0.045). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in ICU mortality between the two groups (21.8% vs. 24.4%; OR: 0.844; CI: 0.548-1.300; P = 0.443). Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that PMX-HP reduces all-cause hospital mortality and length of ICU stay in patients with septic shock.
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