We develop a model effective Hamiltonian for describing the electronic structures of first-row transition metals in aqueous solutions using a quasidegenerate perturbation theory. All the states consisting of 3dn electronic configurations are determined by diagonalizing a small effective Hamiltonian matrix, where various intermolecular interaction terms such as the electrostatic, polarization, exchange, charge transfer, and three-body interactions are effectively incorporated. This model Hamiltonian is applied to constructing the ground and triplet excited states potential energy functions of Ni2+ in aqueous solution, based on the ab initio multiconfiguration quasidegenerate perturbation theory calculations. We perform molecular dynamics simulation calculations for the ground state of Ni2+ aqueous solution to calculate the electronic absorption spectral shape as well as the ground state properties. Agreement between the simulation and experimental spectra is satisfactory, indicating that the present model can well describe the Ni 2+ excited state potential surfaces in aqueous solution.
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