Background: α-Oxoaldehydes such as glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MG), and 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG) are precursors of advanced glycation end products and exert direct toxicity to cells and tissues. Plasma levels of these substances are reportedly elevated in diabetes and dialysis patients, but the data on exact levels and clinical significance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited. Methods: We evaluated plasma α-oxoaldehyde levels using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods in 19 healthy controls and 99 CKD patients with or without diabetes (n = 46 and n = 53, respectively). Results: Mean plasma GO levels in control, CKD stage 1-2, CKD stage 3-5 and CKD stage 5D groups were 285 ± 59, 339 ± 88, 483 ± 172 and 1,178 ± 309 nM, respectively (p < 0.001). MG levels were 249 ± 17, 265 ± 27, 461 ± 188 and 922 ± 354 nM, respectively (p < 0.001). Moreover, significantly higher MG levels were observed in patients with cardiovascular disease history compared to those without. Plasma 3DG levels did not differ among CKD groups and were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients. Conclusions: Plasma GO and MG levels increase as the CKD stages progress and high plasma MG levels may be associated with an increased risk of CVD in CKD patients.
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