Background: Understanding treatment goal is essential for decision-making among patients with unresectable/recurrent solid cancers. However, no previous studies in Japan have examined the association between patients’ understanding and physicians’ explanations. We aimed to examine agreement between patients’ and physicians’ reports of communication about palliative care and current health condition among patients with unresectable/recurrent cancer and explore factors associated with optimistic understanding in Japan. Methods: In this cross-sectional, multicenter, observational survey in Japan, 178 patients with unresectable/ recurrent solid cancers and 16 physicians responded to questionnaires. The primary outcome was agreement between patients’ and physicians’ reports of communication about palliative care and current health condition. Results: Of 56 patients who reported their communication about palliative care, 25/56 (44.6%) agreed with physician reports, and 31/56 (55.4%) were more optimistic than their physicians. Regarding current overall health condition, 45/122 (36.9%) patients gave reports that agreed with physicians’ reports, and 77/122 (63.1%) were optimistic relative to physicians. Physicians’ general approach about disclosure were not associated with patients’ understanding. Conclusions: Fewer than 50% of Japanese patients with unresectable/recurrent cancer agreed with their physicians, whereas most others were more optimistic about palliative care communication and their health condition as compared to physicians. Effective communication is essential to ensure informed decision-making.
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