Electron-excited Auger (AES) and electron energy-loss (ELS) spectroscopic studies have been performed for the phosphides GaP, Cu3P and Fe3P. The P LVV spectra vary with the counter metal element. The energy separations of the Auger transitions for each compound can be explained by a qualitative energy scheme for the valence band. The maxima of the density of states (DOS) in the conduction band are determined by ELS. In the case of GaP, a surface state differing from the bulk state is found, with a dependence of the ELS on the primary-electron kinetic energy. The P LVV Auger spectra of the three phosphides GaP, Cu3 P and Fe3P have been interpreted in terms of the valence-band DOS determined by XPS. The Ga 3d level is a core level. On the other hand, the metal 3d levels in Cu3P and Fe3P are strongly hybridized with phosphorus levels in the valence bands. These differences result in differing P LVV spectra. The ELS spectra indicate the existence of some levels in the conduction bands. A dependence of the ELS on Ep was found for the fracture surface of single-crystal GaP, but not for polycrystalline Cu3 P or Fe3 P. This indicates that the fracture surface of GaP has a surface state differing from the bulk. Characterizations of chemical states are needed in microanalyses of various materials. It is considered that the combination of CVV Auger transitions and ELS is a powerful tool for this purpose. The results of this work may be used for small-sized grains or facets in fracture planes.
|ジャーナル||Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena|
|出版ステータス||Published - 1983|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry