Environmental stressors such as chemicals and physical agents induce various oxidative stresses and affect human health. To elucidate their underlying mechanisms, etiology and risk, analyses of gene expression signatures in environmental stress-induced human diseases, including neuronal disorders, cancer and diabetes, are crucially important. Recent studies have clarified oxidative stress-induced signaling pathways in human and experimental animals. These pathways are classifiable into several categories: reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and antioxidant defenses, p53 pathway signaling, nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, hypoxia signaling, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand-receptor signaling, and mitochondrial function. This review describes the gene expression signatures through which environmental stressors induce oxidative stress and regulate signal transduction pathways in rodent and human tissues.
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